The Entertainment of Sports

Wednesday, November 29, 2006

More than an a Valauble Lesson in Blogging

Utilizing this blog has not only taught me more about the Internet and about writing, but it has opened my eyes to a career area in which I am genuinely interested. As demonstrated by my first blog post and the title of my blog, I had little aspiration to center my writing on women in sports. It was not until I covered Michelle Wie's attempt to play in a men's tournament, that I gained an interest in the treatment and coverage of female athletes. I have experienced an internal conflict when deciding a field that I would like to pursue after college. I have debated between the sports industry and human rights activism for a long period of time. Without having produced this blog, I would have never come to the realization that I can combine these interests into one career field. I believe that working with the Women's Sports Foundation would be a perfect fit for me. Not only will I feel that I am contributing to society, but I will be working in a field that I enjoy.

My greatest strength is this blog is my choice of covering issues that are often overlooked. I think that the topics that I chose to write about were original and fresh. As a female athlete, I never was aware of the discrimination that we face and I hope that this blog has given readers insight into this concern. Another aspect that I believe I have done well is the organization of my essays. Organization is often my biggest struggle when writing an essay, but when reading over my blog, I find to have done an exemplar job of structuring my arguments. If I had the chance to start this blog over again, I would not do things very differently. I would have liked to further examine the portrayal of female athletes in the media, specifically on the Internet. I think this is a field of study that needs to be undertaken. I also believe that I could have been more persuasive in my essays, urging readers to fervently agree with my stance, rather than informing them of the issues at hand. Although I do a good job explaining my theses, my argument seems to become lost in some of my essays. Even with the weaknesses that I have found in my essays, overall, I am impressed with my blog and I believe that the final product is worthy of being read.

Sunday, October 29, 2006

Billie Jean King: A New Member to the Trojan Family

Billie Jean King is often referred to as the best female tennis player in history. While this is a phenomenal accomplishment, the description overlooks the other unparalleled successes she has made in her lifetime. From breaking tennis records to fighting against sexism in sports, Billie Jean King has exemplified courage and excellence. Thus, it is important and appropriate to acknowledge the attainments of King. An honorary degree from a college is a means to reward an individual for his or her merit. In the book, Liberal Education and the Public Interest, James Freedman, president emeritus of the University of Iowa and Dartmouth College, states that honorary degrees “celebrate distinguished and sublime achievement” (118). Additionally, recipients of honorary awards reflect the principles and virtues of the conferring school. On the basis of achievement and accordance to the University of Southern California’s mission and ethics, Billie Jean King is most deserving of a Doctorate of Humane Letters from USC in the spring of 2007.

Mike Martin of Chapman University suggests in his book titled, Meaningful Work: Rethinking Professional Ethics, that, “professionals achieve meaningful lives substantially from the meaning they derive through their work” (21). Therefore, judging an individual’s achievement can easily become a purely subjective process and unworthy individuals become recipients of honorary degrees. To strive for objectivity we will use a set of criteria to judge Billie Jean King’s career and we will ultimately find that she has attained legitimate success. Mike Martin further notes that achievement is defined by the three categories of craft, compensation, and morals (21). Martin further translates these categories into “advanced expertise, social recognition, and service to clients and community” (22). Billie Jean King undeniably exemplifies each of these three categories through her performance on and off the tennis court.

Billie Jean King demonstrates advanced expertise in several professional fields, but most notable is her skill on the tennis court. King won a record of 20 times at Wimbledon, with six times in singles. Additionally, she was ranked number one in the world five times between 1966 and 1972 and was in the Top 10 for a total of 17 years. Legendary tennis player, John McEnroe, said of King, "I don't think it's a stretch to say that Billie Jean King is the single most important person in the history of women's sports." Her skill as an athlete and tennis professional is reiterated through her induction to the International Tennis Hall of Fame. King also was the recipient of the highly esteemed Philippe Chatrier Award, the International Tennis Federation’s highest honor. It is irrefutable that Billie Jean King was a truly skilled athlete on the tennis court and her talent is further substantiated through the admiration she has received through respect and rewards.

Arguments may arise insisting that Billie Jean King is not qualified, or deserving of an honorary degree because she does not excel in an academic field. In his book, Freedman says, “…any aspiration to populate an American peerage is surely trivialized by decisions to garner a fleeting moment of public attention by awarding an institution’s ultimate accolade to mere celebrities…” (126). Many institutes have been guilty of awarding honorary degrees to celebrities who only bring the school publicity and money. Although the practice of awarding celebrities because of their fame needs to be avoided, USC explicitly states that nominees and recipients do not need be invested in academia. The USC Honorary Degree website writes, “An individual's nomination need not come from someone in his/her academic area, and we also welcome nominations of persons with distinguished accomplishments outside of conventional academic fields.” Past honorands of USC degrees include, Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa and U.S. Senator John McCain. Like King, these past recipients did not excel in an academic field, but their dedication and success in their careers warranted an honorary degree. Although Billie Jean King may not have undertaken scientific discovery or literary greatness, her career as a tennis player is worthy of veneration, especially an honorary degree.

The compensation that Billie Jean King has received for her actions provides clear evidence of her greatness. Martin notes that, “professionals typically receive above-average social rewards in the form of income and prestige” (22). In 1971, King was the first woman athlete to win more than $100,000 in any sport. Although this amount was not close to the amount that was awarded to male players, it was a major milestone for female athletes. Although she has made a large sum of money through her tennis career and endorsements, King has received the most rewards through compensation that is not monetary. In 1990, Billie Jean King was featured in Life Magazine as one of the 100 Most Important Americans of the 20th Century. She was also the first woman to be named Sports Illustrated Sportsmen of the Year. These are just a couple of the hundreds of awards that Billie Jean King has received in her life. Perhaps the most significant form of recognition was the recent dedication of the United States Tennis Association National Tennis Center to her. This past August, the center changed its name to the Billie Jean King National Tennis Center. Regarding the renaming of the center, Mayor Michael Bloomberg said, “She set an exceptionally high standard not only for athletic achievement, but for dignity and perseverance in the pursuit of justice. Billie Jean King is an inspiration to all budding tennis players and all Americans." The variety and number of awards that King has gathered demonstrate her commendable achievements and to list all of them would be arduous.

To better understand why Billie Jean King has been rewarded with such honors, one must review those actions that she has taken under moral motives. Martin writes, “Professions provide opportunities to make ongoing contributions to the well-being of others” (23). Billie Jean King takes advantage of the opportunities offered by her profession by being an active advocate for social change. As previously discussed, King was a key player in the fight for women’s equality. An article titled, "Billie Jean won one for all women", asserts “She was instrumental in making it acceptable for American women to exert themselves in pursuits other than childbirth.” One example of King’s efforts to gain rights for female athletes is the creation of the Virginia Slims Tour. Billie Jean King felt that it was unacceptable for male tennis players to get paid as professionals, while she only received under the table payments. King actively remedied this situation by organizing the Virginia Slims Tour in which the female players signed contracts. She was also one of the founders of the Women’s Sports Foundation in 1974. This organization is dedicated to advancing the lives of girls and women through sports and physical activity. Billie Jean King’s contributions to the equality of women are irrevocable and immeasurable.

The most significant way in which Billie Jean King evened the playing field for men and women was in the historic tennis match with Bobby Riggs. The "Battle of the Sexes" match between Bobby Riggs proved to be one of King’s greatest victories in tennis and for women’s equality in sports. On Mother’s Day 1973, King defeated Riggs, a past Wimbledon champion and self-proclaimed “male chauvinist pig”. This defeat greatly reinforced the passage of Title IX, which occurred in the previous year. According to the Women’s Sports Foundation, “Before Title IX, only 1 in 27 girls participated in sports; today that number is 1 in 3. Participation for female athletes has risen 875 percent in high schools and 437 percent in colleges.” Regarding the influence of the match she stated, “I think it helped Title IX as far as changing the minds and hearts. Minds and hearts always take longer than legislation.” The "battle" inspired women to play sports and proved that women could compete just as well as men.

Although women’s equality may be her biggest success, King has also made major strides for the gay community. As a strong and visible woman, she has portrayed a positive image of a lesbian and epitomizes the Code of Ethics at USC, which says that it has a, “commitment to respecting the rights and dignity of all persons.” During the height of her tennis career she was married to her college sweetheart, but in 1981 an ex-lover outed King and filed a palimony suit. Billie Jean King, afraid of losing her tennis endorsements and her career, called the affair a "mistake" and stayed in the closet. It was not until 1998 that King formally came out of the closet. After revealing her sexuality, King has made generous efforts to facilitate the acceptance of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender community.

Billie Jean King plays an active role in the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual and Transgender community. She is currently a board member of the Elton John AIDS Foundation and the National AIDS Fund. Additionally, she received the Capitol Award from GLAAD, the Gay and Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation, in 2000. The Capitol Award is "given to an openly lesbian or gay individual who has achieved excellence in a specific area of media and furthered the visibility and inclusion of the community through his/her work." Although Billie Jean King may be criticized for not publicly coming out until after her tennis career, she currently serves as a respected member of the GLBT community. The USC Code of Ethics says, “We nurture an environment of mutual respect and tolerance.” Billie Jean King’s life embodies this sentiment through her activism for equal human rights of women and homosexuals.

Due to the fact that Billie Jean King did not publicly announce her homosexuality until 1998, an argument may be formed that she was not true to herself and, therefore, should not receive an honorary degree. This argument is understandable, but her actions were warranted and they in no way diminish her work and achievement. She gained love and respect from fans before telling them that she was a lesbian. Had she told her audiences that she was gay at the beginning of her career, much of the headway that she made for females in athletics would have been nonexistent. The generalization that woman who play sports are lesbians would have been reinforced and would have deterred many girls from joining a team for the fear that they would be identified as a homosexual. Additionally, the fear she would jeopardize her career by outing herself is reasonable, especially in the 1970s and 1980s. The loss of her endorsements after the palimony suit was filed is a testament to the danger that King’s career would have suffered if she had identified herself as a lesbian during her tennis career.

King has previously been awarded with honorary degrees from Trinity College, the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Massachusetts. This indicates her worthiness of an honorary degree, as well as her ability to provide a valuable speech upon commencement. A topic she can credibly endorse is the belief of tolerance and acceptance that is embedded in the Code of Ethics. The document expresses, “As members of the USC community, we treat everyone with respect and dignity, even when the values, beliefs, behavior, or background of a person or group is repugnant to us.” Additionally, Billie Jean King would be an exceptionally appropriate recipient of an honorary degree due to the high esteem that USC holds its athletics. The female athletes that attend USC should be extremely appreciative of the work that King has done so that they have the opportunity to be an athlete at USC and receive scholarships. This connection of athletics creates a stronger bond between Billie Jean King and the University of Southern California.

According to Freedman, “In bestowing an honorary degree, a university makes an explicit statement to its students and the world about the qualities of character and attainment it admires most” (117). Billie Jean King exemplifies the ideals and mission that the University of Southern California bestows upon its students. The Role and Mission of USC states, “An extraordinary closeness and willingness to help one another are evident among USC students, alumni, faculty, and staff; indeed, for those within its compass the Trojan Family is a genuinely supportive community.” Billie Jean King rightfully deserves to become a member of the Trojan Family. Her accomplishments are distinguished and resounding. The conferral of an honorary degree from USC to Billie Jean King would emphasize the mission and ethics of the university. As stated on the USC Honorary Degrees website, honorary degrees are used, “to elevate the university in the eyes of the world by honoring individuals who are widely known and highly regarded for achievements in their respective fields of endeavor." By honoring Billie Jean King, students will better understand the type of person that USC seeks to cultivate from its education.

Thursday, September 28, 2006

Sports Illustrated Kids: Thinking Like A Man

In the United States, women are relentlessly being placed in a subordinate position to men in many aspects of their lives. Reproduction rights and workplace harassment have stood out as the major issues plaguing women’s inequality. Additionally, men continually outnumber women and girls in sports. Even with the issuance of Title IX in 1972, female athletes are still receiving 41% fewer participation opportunities in high school sports than males. Females are discriminated against in sports by coaches, college funding and societal norms. As demonstrated by the magazine Website, marginalization of the female audience, the Internet has the ability to widen this gender-based gap. While the Website completely disregards the female audience, Sports Illustrated Kids prevails in its well-developed design and original content. The site could be significantly improved with the accommodation of females. The Web Marketing Association, an organization devoted to honoring high-quality Websites, awarded a 2006 WebAward for Outstanding Achievement in Website Development in its Sports category. According to the WebAwards’ criteria and the Webby Awards’ criteria, another international Website awarding organization, SI Kids is an excellent site. It achieves its purposes of informing and entertaining its audience of eight to fourteen year old boys. As presented by the Pew Internet and American Life Project, eleven percent of American Internet users go online to check sport scores and information daily. It can be correctly assumed that most of this audience is male. Therefore, Sports Illustrated Kids is merely marketing to its most popular and valuable consumers. The users of the SI Kids Website will not only become loyal sports fans, but they will also become loyal Sports Illustrated readers. Although it is a marketing technique, the deliberate discount of female athletes and characters on the SI Kids Web site devastates the attempts to improve the female participation in sports.

Despite its failure to include the female demographic into its target audience, the Website succeeds in different areas. One particularly strong area is the design of the site. The Web Style Guide, an online book offering criteria for valuable Websites, explains that, “the fundamental organizing principle in Website design is to meet the users’ needs.” When using the Internet, boys must be provided with a site that is simple, yet stimulating. This is easily achieved on through the structural and navigational elements of design. Structure and navigation is used by the Webby Awards as one of its judging categories. The Webby Awards states that structure and navigation, “…allow you to form a mental model of the information provided, where to find things, and what to expect when you click.” A user must feel at ease while using a site, but must not become bored. Simplicity is evident in many aspects of its structure. For example, the majority of the page exists in the top portion of the window, leaving a minimal amount of the page that is left unseen until one scrolls down. This is important because the site does not try to force too many choices on the user. If the user does not scroll down, all that will be missed are the supplemental links at the bottom of the page, including the Private Policy and Customer Service. It is extremely unlikely that users will ever need or want to access these links.

Structure, along with navigation, refers to the organization of the site. It is important that users know where they are going when they click on links and do not get lost within the site. This is what the Webby Awards describes as “transparent.” Navigation is key to the user friendliness of a Website. It also has to take the experience its target audience has had with the Internet into consideration. This being said, navigation has to be easy because it is assumed that the target audience does not have much experience with the Internet. Navigation away from the homepage is essential. The Web Style Guide reports that it is most efficient to put navigation links at the top of the page. The SI Kids Website features its links at the top of the page, making them obvious and accessible. Also, the links do not feature pull down menus like many Websites have. Instead users must be guided through several pages until one can reach the ultimate page he or she is looking for. While it may be a nuisance for older experienced Internet users, a step-by-step process will help children understand where they are going on the site. A perfect example of SI Kid's organization can be accessed with the “Scores” link. When clicking on scores the user is brought to a page that offers links for scores, players, teams, schedules, stats and standings for each of the following leagues: MLB, NHL, NBA and NFL. After choosing MLB Teams, one is brought to a page in which each team is represented by a logo and its name. This is extremely helpful for children who may be able to recognize the Chicago Cubs logo easier than finding the name of the team listed with the others. Though this may seem elementary, visuals accompanied by writing are crucial for younger children for they are more able to identify pictures than words. SI Kids is a successful site because it recognizes the importance of putting the audience first when considering its design.

While the design of the site is well developed, it is clear that the content of the SI Kids Website discriminates against females. The WebAwards and Webby Awards criteria do not address discrimination in material presented by the Website. Explained by the Webby Awards, “Good content should be engaging, relevant, and appropriate for the audience.” Thus, the content can contain defamation, but remain “engaging, relevant and appropriate for the audience,” and still receive an award. SI Kids is an example of this. The site is composed of two major content areas, the informational component of sports news and the entertaining component of games. Unfortunately, both of these areas, which contain intriguing and original substance, are plagued by gender-based discrimination. The informational component of the Website is relevant and valuable for the targeted user. Although the site is limited to the mainstream sports, baseball, basketball, football and hockey, it is a logical choice because these are the sports to which young males are attracted. The statistical information that is provided is concise and relevant. For example, the Broncos team site includes the final score of the previous game, the opponent of the next game, the AFC West Standings and an abbreviated amount of team and player statistics. This basic information that even beginner sports fans can appreciate. The statistics also carry authority because Sports Illustrated, arguably the most credible sports magazine on the stands, owns the site.

The focus on the MLB, NHL, NFL and NBA clearly omits female athletes. It can be argued that women’s sports do not attract large audiences, but to young girls, the number of people who watch the WNBA is irrelevant. Girls need women sports players to serve as role models. Female athletes rarely receive coverage in the media. According to the Women’s Sports Foundation, which was founded by Billie Jean King, female athletes only receive 6.3 percent of airtime in early evening and late night television sports news. Also, when women are present in sports media, they are sexualized. For example, Anna Kournikova posed provocatively in Sports Illustrated in 2000. To improve, SI Kids should carry news, photos, videos and statistics for female athletes, from tennis players to football players. Many girls would be astounded to hear that there is actually a Professional Women’s Football League.

According to The Webby Awards judging criteria, interactivity is an important aspect of the content of a Website. The Webby Awards claim that a great site “…insists that you participate, not spectate.” Through games and fantasy leagues, SI Kids asserts its ability to engage the audience. The site boasts many creative games including Flower Boy, in which one can control an ice skater who picks up flowers that are thrown on the ice, while other skaters are performing. In addition, the site attempts to promote a healthy lifestyle with games such as Snack Master in which players must feed the character healthy snacks. Offering more than 30 games, one would assume that SI Kids would provide an abundant amount of options and opportunities to include females into the content, yet the site fails to do so.

The games offered by SI Kids blatantly cater to a male audience. The “Ultimate Athlete Builder” is perhaps the best example of this bias. Users can choose the hair, arms, body, shoes, legs and “bling” to design the ultimate athlete. The only athlete that a user can design is male. While one can change the color of his skin, the user cannot change the character from a man to a woman. Racial issues are addressed, but gender is strictly avoided. In addition to this game, the majority of the other games only have male characters. In fact, there are more gender free games than games with female characters. Consequently, boys are the ones playing most of the games. The majority of male usernames in the top scorers prove this. Featured are usernames like Brendan, Chris, Shane, Mike and Ryan. In one of the two games that feature a female character, the top scorer is named Lizzy. Another game with multiple female high scorers is a racing game that features a pink VW Beetle with a yellow flower on the roof. This implies that girls are more likely to play and enjoy games with female characters. The problem of causality occurs when trying to determine why there is a lack if female participation on the site. Does the Website deter girls or do girls not have the desire to access the site? Regardless of the causality, SI Kids should include more games with female characters.

While much research has been conducted on the representation of races and genders on television and in movies, the Internet is a new medium that has yet to be looked into. Sports Illustrated Kids is an outstanding site based on criteria from the WebAwards and the Webby Awards. Unfortunately, it takes a step backwards in the effort to promote the equality of men and women. SI Kids targets a male audience, but it is evident from the “High Scores” usernames that girls are visiting the Website. Therefore, SI Kids needs to adjust its content to cater to a female audience. According to the Women’s Sports Foundation, high school girls who play sports are less likely to have an unwanted pregnancy, are more likely to have better grades and are more likely to graduate. Sports are beneficial for the health and well being of females, yet sports media continually disregards the importance of the visibility of female athletics.

Sunday, September 17, 2006

The Future of Sports Journalism: Goodbye To Our Local Sports Anchors

Instead of creating a blog this week, I have decided to expand my horizons and see what my fellow bloggers are writing about sports. And after waking up at 2:30 am on Saturday to watch Lee, Kirk and Chris at ESPN’s College Gameday at the Coliseum, I have decided to focus my search on sports journalism. I have commented on two blogs that both refer to the findings of a study at the Center for Sports Journalism at Penn State. This study shows that sports directors, anchors and reporters feel that their segments on local news programs are losing importance and could eventually be cut. On the first blog on which I have commented, I have suggested an up-and-coming form of sports journalism. On the second blog, I have argued that local sports coverage will not save the sports segment of television news. While niche programming, like ESPN and CSTV, is the future of sports on television and is leaving the local station's sport segment in the dust, the Internet arguably serves as the best arena for sports journalism.

Monday, September 11, 2006

Gender Struggles On the Green: Michelle Wie's Attempt to Play With the Boys

Michelle Wie’s recent performance in the Omega European Masters has acted as a catalyst for fans and critics to discuss the appropriateness of a woman’s participation in mens golf events. Not only did she miss the cut for the European Masters, but she also finished last in the tournament with a final score of 15 over. Many golfer’s and golf enthusiasts complain that Wie is not good enough and, therefore, should not compete with men. Northern Ireland’s Graeme McDowell said about the tournament, "She had no chance round here. And I just don't think women can compete against the men." But even with this rough event and criticism, the 16 year old from Hawaii is not giving any signs that she is going to stop entering in men’s events. After her last round this Friday she told reporters, "My view is that to get better on the men's tour and to be a better player, I have to keep playing men's events.” For the well being of the sport of golf itself, Michelle Wie should continue playing, or at least trying to play, in men’s tournaments.

Michelle Wie’s participation in men’s events is critical to the future success of golf. Golf as a spectator sport cannot rest solely on the shoulders of Tiger Woods and Phil Mickelson. Dan Jenkins, writer from Golf For Women magazine, supports Wie’s decisions in his article, If You Let Her Play, stating, “Golf fans are hungering for something unique, different, intriguing.” A woman in a men’s tournament has proven to satiate the hungers of golf fans. Tournaments in which Michelle Wie plays, undeniably attract a larger audience. So why shouldn’t she be able to play in men’s tournaments? Many reply that Wie will take the place of a deserving young male player. Skill, not gender should determine an individual's right to play in an event. Additionally, people believe that she is just not strong enough as a golfer to compete with men. Prior to this year's tournament, George O'Grady, the European Tour chief executive, described women playing in men's event, a "gimmick." While it may have been a "gimmick," Michelle Wie's participation gained attention for the European Masters, and according to Sergio Garcia, the previous champion of the European Masters, "Anything that helps the game of golf is good, no matter what."

Those golfers who are enraged by a woman playing in a men’s tournament may soon feel relief if Wie continues to play poorly. No one is willing to subject him or herself to the embarrassment of being cut from every tournament. This Friday was Wie’s ninth cut of ten attempts to play in a men’s tournament. In addition to ruining her confidence, Wie will not receive the support of sponsors if she continues to lose. She returns to play against men this week in the 84 Lumber Classic in Pennsylvania. Her future involvement in men’s events greatly relies on her ability to play the game. So, until she can’t stand losing anymore or sponsors stop inviting her to tournaments, I say, you go girl.

Thursday, August 31, 2006

2006 NFL Rule Changes: New Restrictions for End-Zone Antics

Over 50,000 screaming fans surround him and Who Let The Dogs Out? is playing through the speakers, yet he must think twice before he can celebrate his act of greatness. This is the situation in which NFL players will find themselves after scoring a touchdown this 2006 season. The competition committee of the National Football League has voted this March to limit end-zone celebrations. Players who use props or perform stunts that are argued to delay the game, like Terrell Owen's football signing, will be punished with a 15-yard penalty. Although the NFL has good intentions in placing restrictions on touchdown celebrations, it is irrational to assume that players will adhere to these guidelines in the highly commercialized world of American football.

It is understandable that the league needs to implement these rules to encourage sportsmanship rather than showmanship. The new limitations on end-zone celebrations passed because many coaches felt similar sentiments to San Diego Marty Schottenheimer’s, who said, “The game is about the team, not the individual.” Like it or not, the game is hardly about the teams anymore. Halftime shows, the cheerleaders, the commercials and the uniforms define what the audience perceives as entertainment. While the NFL old-timers are trying to preserve what little sanctity of the league is left, all other influences are encouraging players like Steve Smith and Terrell Owens to perform in the end zone. These players receive more attention from the fans, more airtime on SportsCenter, and more endorsements. Sport’s columnist Chris Russell complains that the celebration of players is immature and unsportsmanlike, but the players are merely catering their actions to the media interest, which ultimately leads to a large paycheck.

Fans of Chad Johnson’s pylon putting and other shenanigans should not despair. Touchdown performances for football players remain as irresistible as a juicy t-bone steak is to a pit bull. The players know that they can entertain and attract viewers more easily with an original touchdown dance than an incredible catch. Coaches may argue that football players are paid to win games. The truth is that players are being sold the commodity of the NFL. They will continue to sell this commodity by finding the loopholes in the new 2006 rule changes. Chad Johnson told a Cincinatti reporter that he was already planning to meet with fellow players to brainstorm some ideas for the new season. He also told the press, "Tell the competition committee that Chad said you can't cover 85, and there's no way you can stop him from entertaining." Despite all the controversy, audiences should be ready for some very creative end-zone celebrations this 2006 NFL season.